The path taken by a climate scenario is characterised by the level of demand for the various levers that influence the volume of greenhouse gas emissions.
For emissions from energy consumption, the following three main levers can be used schematically :
- Decarbonisation of energy carriers (such as replacing coal-fired electricity generation with renewable
electricity production from renewable energies)
- Energy efficiency, which is basically producing the same services with less services with less energy (such as the replacement of combustion vehicles by electric vehicles, which consume three times less energy ; or the thermal insulation of buildings)
- Sobriety, which consists of consuming in moderation (less) the goods and services that have a high consumption) of goods and services with a high environmental impact (typically reducing the temperature of heating).
France has set targets for reducing territorial greenhouse
emissions, consistent with its international commitments and with EU policy. These are as follows :
- Achieving carbon neutrality by 2050 ;
- To reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 40% in 2030 compared to 1990